In 2010, a man came to a hospital in Italy with normal signs of cardiovascular troubles. After an examination, doctors discovered that his case was hardly typical — he had two hearts. A few years earlier, he had undergone a procedure known as a heterotopic heart transplant, in which a new organ is paired with a diseased one. "We see this in cardiac patients or kidney patients, sometimes," explained Rade Vukmir, professor of emergency medicine at Temple. "Surgeons might leave a kidney in place if it's too much trouble to take out, or if there is hope for recovery of a kidney, or a heart, after a period of time."